Hall of Shame - United States

9/11 Terrorist Attacks

Lt. Col. Shelton F. Lankford, US Marine Corps (ret.) “My mourning for the country I live in is not abstract, but real and very immediate. Since the unsolved crime of 9/11/01, I have seen our republic descend into darkness, as we used the lie of 9/11 to justify aggression abroad and repression at home. We have officially become a torture state. Accountability for egregious crimes at the highest levels is non-existent.” “September 11, 2001 seems destined to be the watershed event of our lives and the greatest test for our democracy in our lifetimes. The evidence of government complicity in the lead-up to the events, the failure to respond during the event, and the astounding lack of any meaningful investigation afterwards, as well as the ignoring of evidence turned up by others that renders the official explanation impossible, may signal the end of the American experiment. It has been used to justify all manner of measures to legalize repression at home and as a pretext for behaving as an aggressive empire abroad. Until we demand an independent, honest, and thorough investigation and accountability for those whose action and inaction led to those events and the cover-up, our republic and our Constitution remain in the gravest danger.”

9/11 - Act of Treason

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Afghanistan- Iraq War/Occupation

Bay of Pigs - U.S. Cuban Invasion Fiasco

US President Dwight D. Eisenhower was very concerned at the direction Castro's government was taking, and in March 1960 he allocated $13.1 million to the CIA to plan Castro's overthrow.

Over 1,400 paramilitaries, divided into five infantry battalions and one paratrooper battalion, assembled in Guatemala before setting out for Cuba by boat on 13 April 1961. Two days later, on 15 April, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the US. On the night of 16 April, the main invasion landed at a beach named Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs. It initially overwhelmed a local revolutionary militia.

The Cuban Army's counter-offensive was led by José Ramón Fernández before Castro decided to take personal control of the operation. As the US involvement became apparent to the world, and with the military initiative turning against the invasion, President John F. Kennedy decided against providing further air cover.[7] As a result, the operation only had half the forces the CIA had deemed necessary. The original plan devised during Eisenhower's presidency had required both air and naval support. On 20 April, the invaders surrendered after only three days, with the majority being publicly interrogated and put into Cuban prisons.

The failed invasion helped to strengthen the position of Castro's leadership, made him a national hero, and entrenched the rocky relationship between the former allies. It also reinforced the relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union

Bay of Pigs Invasion

2011-04-18 Bay of Pigs, 50 Years Later: The Lessons Kennedy Never Learned

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California Indian Wars

In 1850 California was admitted to the United States as its 31st state. As with some other states, Native Americans were not seen as desirable inhabitants of the state.

For the first decade of its existence, the State of California carried on a series of privatized wars of extermination against the Native American population. California’s first governor, Peter Burnett, openly called for the extermination of Indian tribes.

The Act for the Government and Protection of Indians, April 22, 1850. Passed by the legislature of California, it allowed settlers to continue the Californio practice of capturing and using Native people as forced workers.

It also provided the basis for the enslavement and trafficking in Native American Native labor, particularly that of young women and children, which was carried on as a legal business enterprise. Raids on villages were made to supply the demand, the young women and children were carried off to be sold, the men and remaining people often being killed. This practice did much to destroy Native tribes during the California Gold Rush.

The California Indian Wars were a series of massacres, wars, and battles between the United States Army (or often the California State Militia, especially during the early 1850s), and the Indigenous peoples of California. The wars lasted from 1850, immediately after the acquisition of Alta California during the Mexican–American War became the state of California, to 1880 when the last minor military operation on the Colorado River that ended the Calloway Affair of 1880.

Sources:

California Indian Wars

Indians 101: California's War on Indians, 1850-1851

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Chelsie Manning - Whistleblower

Whisteblower Chelsea Manning (formerly Bradley) is the US Army Private (Pfc) who leaked military and government documents to the online media outlet Wikileaks which became the basis for the Collateral Murder video, which showed the killing of unarmed civilians by a US Apache helicopter crew in Iraq.

Leaks made by Manning also resulted in the Afghan War Diary, the Iraq War Logs, and a series of embarrassing US diplomatic cables that became known as Cablegate.

The Guantánamo files are among hundreds of thousands of documents US soldier Bradley Manning is accused of having turned over to the WikiLeaks website more than a year ago.

In 2013, she was convicted by a military court or the disclosures and sentence to 35 years in prison. In 2017, in the last days of his presidency, President Barack Obama coummuted her sentence. She was released from prison in May of 2017.

In February 2019, Manning received a subpoena to testify in a US government case against WikiLeaks and Julian Assange. Manning condemned the secrecy of the hearings and announced she would avoid testifying, saying "we've seen this power abused countless times to target political speech. I have nothing to contribute to this case and I resent being forced to endanger myself by participating in this predatory practice." Manning also said she had provided all the information she had in 2013 during her court martial and that she stood by her previous answers.

On March 8, 2019, Manning was held in contempt of court and jailed in the women's wing of the federal detention center in Alexandria, Virginia, with the judge conditioning her release on her testifying or the grand jury concluding its work.

Manning was released on May 9, 2019, after the grand jury's term expired. She was immediately served with another subpoena to appear before a new grand jury on 16 May. On 16 May 2019, Manning again refused to testify before the grand jury investigating Julian Assange stating that she "believe[d] this grand jury seeks to undermine the integrity of public discourse with the aim of punishing those who expose any serious, ongoing, and systemic abuses of power by this government".

She was returned to jail for the 18-month term of the grand jury. In addition a fine was imposed of $500 for each day she spends in jail over 30 days and $1,000 for each day she spends in jail over 60 days.

Chelsea Manning

2020-02-19 Chelsea Manning's Lawyers Demand Her Release, Decry 'Punitive' Incarceration**

Chelsea Manning Believes Subpoena From WikiLeaks Grand Jury May Be ‘Perjury Trap,’ According To Unsealed Documents

2011-04-25 Guantánamo Leaks Lift Lid on World's Most Controversial Prison

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Chinese Exclusion Act

The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. Building on the 1875 Page Act, which banned Chinese women from immigrating to the United States, the Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law implemented to prevent all members of a specific ethnic or national group from immigrating.

The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the U.S.–China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration. The act was initially intended to last for 10 years, but was renewed in 1892 with the Geary Act and made permanent in 1902. It was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943, which allowed 105 Chinese to enter per year. Chinese immigration later increased with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which abolished direct racial barriers, and later by Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which abolished the National Origins Formula.

Chinese Exclusion Act

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

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Citizen United

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. 310 (2010), is a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning campaign finance.

The Court held that the free speech clause of the First Amendment prohibits the government from restricting independent expenditures for political communications by corporations, including nonprofit corporations, labor unions, and other associations.

10 Ways Citizens United Endangers Democracy

  1. “Independent” Spending Farce Leads To SuperPACs
  2. Legal Money Laundering Increases Secret Spending
  3. Corporate Money Distorts Democracy
  4. Court is Blind to Reality of Corruption
  5. Citizen Voices are Drowned Out
  6. Money Is Still Not Speech
  7. Open Season on Remaining Money in Politics Protections
  8. Increases Corporate Power
  9. Unlimited Corporate Spending is Bad for Business and Shareholders
  10. Risks Reducing Respect for the Supreme Court

10 Ways Citizens United Endangers Democracy

Citizens United v. FEC

Why “Citizens United” ruling was wrong?

Money Is Speech: Why the Citizens United v. FEC Ruling Is Bad for Politics and the Market

2019-11-05 Historic' Alaska Ruling Could Provide Roadmap to Defeating Citizens United

2018-02-17 How Citizens United Continues to Transform Money in Politics

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Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between the northern United States (loyal to the Union) and the southern United States (that had seceded from the Union and formed the Confederacy).[e] The civil war began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights in order to uphold slavery.

American Civil War

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Climate Crisis

A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Monday argues based on "current trends of population declines and extinctions" that we are currently witnessing Earth's "sixth mass extinction."

While scientists have stated that much of the future warming is already "locked in," Cole points out that humanity's main focus must be to make sure all efforts are made to reverse the emissions trend in order to limit the scale of the destruction. " And the message from the global climate justice movement has been crystal clear: It's an emergency. Act like it. A scathing response from Friends of the Earth to a climate resolution from Senate Democrats says that moderation is not the answer on the environment.

2019-05-13 'We Don't Know a Planet Like This': CO2 Levels Hit 415 PPM for First Time in 3 Million+ Years

2019-02-28 Democrats 'Wasting Time While Our Climate Burns' With Insufficient Resolution

2017-07-11 Warning of Sixth Mass Extinction, Scientists Implore Global Action

2013-08-15 Hot Century Ahead: Study Finds Onslaught of Heat Waves Now Inevitable

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Contras - Nicaragua

Iran — the former U.S.-ally-turned-enemy after 1979′s Islamic revolution, now in a war with Iraq and desperately needing military aid — had sway with the hijackers. That gave rise to a hidden network, using unsavory middlemen, of trading arms for the American Embassy hostages.

But the scheme generated extra profits, right at a time when Reagan’s other big foreign-policy frustration was Congress balking at funds for his would-be allies in Central America, including a human-rights nightmare of a right-wing reactionary movement in Nicaragua called the Contras. In fact, during Reagan’s first term, Congress barred aiding the Contras in a measure known as the Boland Amendment — which Team Reagan decided to circumvent by steering the off-the-book profits from the Iranian arms deals to the Contras. It was a brazen, outrageous scheme that unraveled quickly when — on October 5, 1986 — an American pilot named Eugene Hasenfus flying some of that illicit aid to the Contras was shot down, captured, and confessed everything.

The movie, “Kill the Messenger,” is forcing the mainstream U.S. media to confront one of its most shameful episodes, the suppression of a major national security scandal implicating Ronald Reagan’s CIA in aiding and abetting cocaine trafficking by the Nicaraguan Contra rebels in the 1980s and then the systematic destruction of journalist Gary Webb when he revived the scandal in the 1990s.

2019-12-04 Reagan’s Forgotten Iran-Contra Escape May Reveal More About Trump’s Fate Than Watergate

2014-10-10 The Sordid Contra-Cocaine Saga

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Convention on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

On December 18, 1979, the United Nations approved The Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). As of 2020, 187 nations out of the 194 member nations of the UN have approved this convention or treaty. The United States is one of only seven nations that has not yet approved it. The United States stands together with Sudan, South Sudan, Somalia, Iran, and two small Pacific islands, Tonga and Palau in failing to ratify CEDAW.

CEDAW

2020-01-03 Why Won’t the U.S. Ratify the CEDAW Human Rights Treaty?

A Fact Sheet on CEDAW: Treaty for the Rights of Women ]

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Cuba - U.S. Embargo

This nearly-55-year old policy is actually a set of several laws that impose commercial, financial, and economic restrictions on the small island country. Ostensibly, the embargo was supposed to build popular resistance that might culminate in ousting the Castro government. That didn’t happen when Fidel Castro ran Cuba.

The embargo has outlived the Soviet Union by 25 years. Cubans have paid the price for this failed policy for decades. They’ve suffered from severe restrictions in their access to critical medicines and meager rationing amid food shortages.

Over the years, Cuba has found ways to shore up their economy by investing in small-scale agriculture, preserving their first-class medical training, and forging economic agreements with burgeoning economies like that of Brazil and China.

2014-03-19 55 Years Is Enough: Lift the Cuba Embargo

2011-08-29 Bay of Pigs Report Shows Extent of CIA's Power, Subterfuge in 1960s

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Death Penalty

According to Amnesty International, there are sixty-eight countries that retain the death penalty and carry out executions. But even this number is misleading. In reality, the vast majority of the world's executions are carried out by seven nations: China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, the United States, Pakistan, Yemen, and Vietnam.

Many Americans know that the nations comprising Europe (except Belarus) and South America are abolitionist. But how many are aware that of the fifty-three nations in Africa only four ( Uganda, Libya, Somalia, and Sudan) carried out executions in 2005? Even in Asia, where many nations have long insisted that the death penalty is an appropriate and necessary sanction, there are signs of change. The Philippines abolished the death penalty in 2006, and the national bar associations of Malaysia and Japan have called for a moratorium on executions.

2019-03-06 Keith Tharpe and the Death Penalty’s Racist Roots

2007-11-07 The Global Debate on the Death Penalty

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Deepwater Horizon oil spill

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill, oil leak, or oil disaster; the Gulf of Mexico oil spill; and the Macondo blowout) is an industrial disaster that began on April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect, considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill, also in the Gulf of Mexico.

The U.S. federal government estimated the total discharge at 4.9 million barrels (210 million US gal; 780,000 m3). After several failed efforts to contain the flow, the well was declared, better than what it was, and sealed on September 19, 2010. Reports in early 2012 indicated that the well site was still leaking. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is regarded as one of the largest environmental disasters in American history.

A massive response ensued to protect beaches, wetlands and estuaries from the spreading oil utilizing skimmer ships, floating booms, controlled burns and 1.84 million US gallons (7,000 m3) of oil dispersant. Due to the months-long spill, along with adverse effects from the response and cleanup activities, extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats and fishing and tourism industries was reported.

Deepwater Horizon oil spill - Wikipedia

2010-09-03 Gulf of Mexico Oil Platform Explodes, Fueling Debate Over Offshore Drilling

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Ferguson and Michael Brown Killing

On August 9, 2014, Michael Brown Jr., an 18-year-old African American man, was fatally shot by 28-year-old white Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson in the city of Ferguson, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis. Johnson contradicted this account, stating that Brown turned around with his hands raised after Wilson shot at his back. According to Johnson, Wilson then shot Brown multiple times until Brown fell to the ground. In the entire altercation, Wilson fired a total of twelve bullets, including twice during the struggle in the car; the last was probably the fatal shot. Brown was hit six times, all from the front.

This event ignited unrest in Ferguson. Although a subsequent FBI investigation found that there was no evidence that Brown had his hands up in surrender or said "don't shoot" before he was shot, protesters believed that he had done so, and used the slogan "Hands up, don't shoot" in protest. Protests, both peaceful and violent, continued for more than a week in Ferguson; police established a nightly curfew. The response of area police agencies in dealing with the protests was strongly criticized by the media and politicians. There were concerns over insensitivity, tactics, and a militarized response. Missouri governor Jay Nixon ordered local police organizations to cede much of their authority to the Missouri State Highway Patrol.

[Shooting of Michael Brown - Wikipedia]( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ShootingofMichael_Brown0

2019-08-09 Five Years After Ferguson Uprising, Still Seeking Justice and Healing

2014-08-31 Will the Ferguson Resistance Fade into History? (VIDEO)

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Gary Webb - Dark Alliance

“Kill the Messenger” tells the tragic tale of journalist Gary Webb who revived the Contra-cocaine scandal in the 1990s and saw his life destroyed by the mainstream media.

A campaign of character assassination by the major U.S. newspapers drove an honest journalist to suicide. Now those papers claim to be paragons of truth-telling, says Robert Parry.

2016-12-10 Big Media’s Contra-Cocaine Cover-up

**2014-10-12 Can MSM Handle the Contra-Cocaine Truth?

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Guantánamo

The use of torture has persisted at the U.S. military-run Guantanamo Bay prison in Cuba despite it being banned by both U.S. and international law, according to information obtained by a top United Nations human rights investigator.

These allegations come nearly a decade after the U.S. banned so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques"—torturous practices approved by the George W. Bush administration in the wake of 9/11.

Torture also remains illegal by international law. "This is one of the most fundamental norms of international law, and its violation is listed among the most serious international crimes, including crimes against humanity and war crimes," Melzer said. "No circumstances, however exceptional and well argued, may be invoked to justify torture."

Melzer claimed the U.S. is in "clear violation" of international law for "failing to prosecute the crime of torture in CIA custody," adding, the U.S. has sent "a dangerous message of complacency and impunity to officials in the US and around the world."

The 759 Guantánamo files, classified "secret", cover almost every inmate since the camp was opened in 2002. The files depict a system often focused less on containing dangerous terrorists or enemy fighters, than on extracting intelligence.

There are 41 men being held at Guantanamo Bay—26 have never been charged with a crime, and five continue to be held despite being cleared for release, according to a March 2017 report from the American Civil Liberties Union. It costs roughly $7 million per year to hold one detainee at the U.S. military-run detention center. Since it opened in January 2002, Guantanamo Bay—also known as Gitmo—has seen nearly 800 men pass through.

Due to the ugly practices linked to Guantanamo Bay, it has been widely cited as a recruiting poster for terrorism. Jihadist media and propaganda have frequently mentioned the prison.

Sources:

Torture Used by U.S. Military at Guantanamo Bay Despite Being Banned, UN Says

Guantánamo Leaks Lift Lid on World's Most Controversial Prison

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Guatemala Plight

Decades of U.S. policy in Guatemala alone have turned the country into a land of wreck and ruin. This is the ultimate reason migrants have been crossing into the United States in increasing numbers in recent months. Harsh immigration enforcement policies, such as the ones the Obama administration has been championing, add insult to injury as the U.S. punishes migrants when they arrive when it should be paying people like those of Guatemala massive reparations.

"They owe it to us." It is indisputable that the U.S. shares significant responsibility for the genocide of tens of thousands of Guatemalans—mainly indigenous Mayans who comprised a majority of the (at least) 150,000 killed in the 1980s alone. A 1999 UN Truth Commission blamed Guatemalan state forces for 93 percent of the atrocities. That same year, former President Bill Clinton admitted the wrongness of U.S. support support for Guatemalan state violence.

U.S. culpability for Guatemala's plight endures to this day. The problem is—then and now—the United States is in denial as a nation over what to do about its complicity.

2014-08-06 Then and Now: US Policy Towards Central American Fuels Child Refugee Crisis

Haiti Invasion 1915

The US invaded and occupied Haiti 101 years ago, and remained there for nineteen years. Accomplishments of the occupation include raiding the Haitian National Bank, re-instituting forced labor, establishing the hated National Guard, and getting a 25-year contract for the US corporation, United Fruit.

There was a pretext for the invasion -- the assassination of Haiti’s president in 1915. But to understand the event, which has lessons to draw from a century later, it is necessary to look more closely at the invader than th

United States Occupation of Haiti _Wikipedia

2016-08-03 Haiti 101 Years After US Invasion, Still Resisting Domination

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Hiroshima - Nagasaki

The United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively, with the consent of the United Kingdom, as required by the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings killed between 129,000 and 226,000 people, most of whom were civilians, and remain the only use of nuclear weapons in armed conflict.

The question of military necessity can be quickly put to rest. "Japan was already defeated and dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary." They are the words of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe and future president of the United States. Eisenhower knew, as did the entire senior U.S. officer corps, that by mid 1945 Japan was defenseless.

But if dropping the bombs was not driven by military needs, why, then, were they used? The answer can be discerned in the U.S. attitude toward the Russians, the way the War ended in Europe, and the situation in Asia.

So, on August 6, 1945, two days before the Russians were to declare war against Japan, the U.S. dropped the bomb on Hiroshima. There was no risk to U.S. forces then waiting for a Japanese response to the demand for surrender. The earliest planned invasion of the island was still three months away and the U.S. controlled the timing of all military engagements in the Pacific. But the Russian matter loomed and drove the decision on timing. So, only three days later, the U.S. dropped the second bomb on Nagasaki. The Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945, eight days after the first bomb was dropped.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

2019-01-17 Against Forgetting: Ground Zero Nagasaki

2006-08-06 Was the Atomic Bombing of Japan Necessary?

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Hurricane Katrina & FEMA

It’s New Orleans remembrance time; that time where, for the last ten years at the end of August, public attention returns for a bit to the city that abandoned its poorest. Mostly black, in a majority black city, democracy failed as spectacularly as the public safety system. Not only the levees, but also the social contract was breached. Poor people clinging to rooftops in the richest nation on earth. The pictures shocked the world and broke our hearts.

Ten years on, the city’s back. The levees are rebuilt, but the social contract lies in shreds. Let’s remember. Hurricane Katrina didn’t destroy New Orleans. The storm’s eye passed to the east. It was the levee breaks that followed that wiped out entire neighborhoods. Public safety systems that had never served all residents well, failed the most vulnerable. A million were displaced, hundreds of thousands lost land and loved-ones.

2015-08-27 New Orleans’ Deadly Floodwaters: Now From Gentrification

2015-08-19 Katrina and Conservative Failure, Ten Years Later

2007-09-05 Hurricane Katrina: Who's to Blame for this Unnatural Disaster

2007-08-08 America’s Shame: 2 years after Hurricane Katrina

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Immigrant Child Separation

After enacting a “zero tolerance” policy towards all adult immigrants crossing the border into the U.S., in effect separating parents from their children and keeping the children in inhumane conditions, the Trump administration now intends to rescind this measure. However, because some family records have been lost or destroyed, some children may never again be reunited with their parents.

The separation of children from their parents violates basic tenets of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), an internationally recognized agreement among nations that establishes a comprehensive set of goals for individual nations to improve children’s lives. Although the convention has worldwide recognition and support, the U.S. is the only country in the world that hasn’t yet ratified the CRC.

There are still 3,000 children separated from their parents, and 100 are under the age of 5, according to Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar. Children and adolescents are kept in “cages”, a word disputed by the U.S. Border Patrol that says, in a statement, “It’s not inaccurate, but they are very ‘uncomfortable’ with this characterization.”

2018-07-09Trump’s Policies on Immigrant Children Violate the Convention on the Rights of the Child

2018-06-18 Toxic Effects of Stress on Children Separated From Parents

2018-05-21 A Vile Act of Inhumanity: Splitting Up Families like the Slave Traders Did

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Israel - USA Support

Jackson State Killings, 1970

The Jackson State Killings took place at Jackson State College (now Jackson State University) on May 15, 1970, in Jackson, Mississippi. Around midnight on May 14, city and state police confronted a group of students and opened fire on them, killing two students and injuring twelve. The Jackson State Killings occurred eleven days after the more widely publicized Kent State University Shootings in Kent, Ohio eleven days earlier.

Seventy-five policeman and Mississippi State Police officers arrived to control the crowd. Around 12:05 a.m. on May 15, 1970, the police opened fire on the crowd, and twenty-one-year-old Phillip Lafayette Gibbs and seventeen-year-old James Earl Green were killed. Gibbs was a junior pre-law major at Jackson State and father of an eighteen-month-old son; Green was a senior at Jim Hill High School in Jackson.

2017-09-07 The Jackson State Killings, 1970

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Jim Crow Laws

Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period. The laws were enforced until 1965.

In practice, Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America and other states, starting in the 1870s and 1880s. Jim Crow laws were upheld in 1896 in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson, in which the U.S. Supreme Court laid out its "separate but equal" legal doctrine for facilities for African Americans. Moreover, public education had essentially been segregated since its establishment in most of the South after the Civil War (1861–65).

The legal principle of "separate but equal" racial segregation was extended to public facilities and transportation, including the coaches of interstate trains and buses. Facilities for African Americans and Native Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to the facilities for white Americans; sometimes, there were no facilities for people of color. As a body of law, Jim Crow institutionalized economic, educational, and social disadvantages for African Americans and other people of color living in the South.

Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Jim Crow laws - Wikipedia

2013-03-28 Black Mass Incarceration ---- Is It New? Is It Jim Crow? Is the Prison-Industrial Complex Real? And What Difference Does It Make

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JFK Assassination

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. Central Standard Time in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.

Kennedy was riding with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife Nellie when he was fatally shot by former U.S. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald firing in ambush from a nearby building. Governor Connally was seriously wounded in the attack. The motorcade rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital where President Kennedy was pronounced dead about 30 minutes after the shooting; Connally recovered.

The assassination of John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, and the subsequent murder of prime suspect Lee Harvey Oswald by night club owner Jack Ruby has spurred numerous conspiracy theories. These include alleged involvement of the CIA, the Mafia, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro, the KGB, or some combination of these entities.

The original FBI investigation and Warren Commission report, as well as an alleged "benign CIA cover-up", have led to the claim that the federal government deliberately covered up crucial information in the aftermath of the assassination. Former Los Angeles District Attorney Vincent Bugliosi estimated that a total of 42 groups, 82 assassins, and 214 people had been accused at one time or another in various conspiracy scenarios.

…the “Surgeon General’s Report” on the assassination stated that the first bullet entered the President’s throat below the adams apple, clearly showing that two persons were involved with the first shot being fired from the bridge across the park way in front of the car. To further substantiate this, POTITO said there was a bullet hole in the wind shield of the President’s car…

In 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald was the only person responsible for assassinating Kennedy.

The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) was established in 1976 to investigate the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1963 and 1968. The HSCA completed its investigation in 1978 and issued its final report the following year, concluding that Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.

The Men Who Killed Kennedy is a video documentary series by British television network ITV that depicts the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. The final episode implicating Lyndon B. Johnson and the withdrawal of these additional episodes.

Assassination of John F. Kennedy Wikipedia

Zapruder Film JFK Assassination

Jim Garrison -Wikipedia

The Men Who Killed Kennedy

United States House Select Committee on Assassinations

2019-09-24 The Coverup of President John F. Kennedy’s Assassination Is Wearing Thin

2018-11-23 John F. Kennedy 55 Years On: Casting Light on the JFK Assassination, 9/11 and Other 21st Century Crimes

2018-01-13 The Strange Fate of Those Who Saw JFK Shot

2017-10-30 The One Paragraph You Need to Read from the JFK Assassination Files that May Change Everything

2014-06-20 America’s “Deep State”. From the JFK Assassination to 9/11

2013-11-14 The JFK Assassination: Beware of the Coverup of an Obvious Plot](https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-jfk-assassination-beware-of-the-coverup-of-an-obvious-plot/5358071)**

2013-11-14 The JFK Assassination: Beware of the Coverup of an Obvious Plot

2013-08-20 The JFK Assassination Marked the End of the American Republic

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Julian Assange -Wikileaks

Kent State Shooting

The Kent State shootings (also known as the May 4 massacre or the Kent State massacre), were the shootings on May 4, 1970, of unarmed college students by the Ohio National Guard at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, during a mass protest against the bombing of neutral Cambodia by United States military forces.

Twenty-eight National Guard soldiers fired approximately 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.

Some of the students who were shot had been protesting against the Cambodian Campaign, which President Richard Nixon announced during a television address on April 30 of that year. Other students who were shot had been walking nearby or observing the protest from a distance.

There was a significant national response to the shootings: hundreds of universities, colleges, and high schools closed throughout the United States due to a student strike of 4 million students. The event further affected public opinion, at an already socially contentious time, over the role of the United States in the Vietnam War.

Sources:

Kent State Shooting

Kent State Shooting History

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Korean War 1950s

At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States liberated Korea from imperial Japanese colonial control on 15 August 1945.

After the war had ended, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel into two zones of occupation, the Soviets administered the northern half and the Americans administered the southern half. With the border set at the 38th parallel in 1948, two sovereign states were established as a result of geopolitical tensions of the Cold War (between the Soviet Union and the United States).

A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither accepted the border as permanent.

The conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military (KPA) forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation of the United Nations Command and the dispatch of forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.

After the first two months of war, South Korean Army (ROKA) and the US forces rapidly dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat. As a result, the ROKA and US troops retreated to a small area behind a defensive line known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, and cut off many KPA troops in South Korea. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces invaded North Korea in October 1950 and moved rapidly towards the Yalu River—the border with China—but on 19 October 1950, Chinese forces of the People's Volunteer Army (PVA) crossed the Yalu and entered the war. The surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces back below the 38th Parallel by late December.

I.F. Stone exposed the inconsistency and false reporting on events leading to the Korean War and the expansion of the war for no good reason. Stone also undermined the "truth telling squads" whose had bad logic and memory were exposed.

Stone remarked that the lie that the North Korean attack on South Korea was a surprised is undermined by events. Chinese Nationalist commodity brokers invested heavily in soybean futures knowing that war would erupt and made $30,000,000 which caused consternation among American brokers who called for Senate hearing. US dignitaries and the families were evacuated from South Korea. Reports surfaced that Rhee and South Korean authorities ordered forays into North Korea. When the North Koreans did attack, the response was feigned shock. Stone wrote about the contradictory reports of surprise and then that intelligence was aware of the attack. The "intelligence" operatives did not want to be exposed for their incompetence.

Korean War - Wikipedia

Hidden History of the Korean War

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MLK Assassination

McCarthyism

President Harry S. Truman's Executive Order 9835 of March 21, 1947, required that all federal civil-service employees be screened for "loyalty". The order said that one basis for determining disloyalty would be a finding of "membership in, affiliation with or sympathetic association" with any organization determined by the attorney general to be "totalitarian, fascist, communist or subversive" or advocating or approving the forceful denial of constitutional rights to other persons or seeking "to alter the form of Government of the United States by unconstitutional means."

The so-called "Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations" (AGLOSO) was one of the most central and widely publicized aspects of the post–World War II Red Scare, which has popularly become known as "McCarthyism."

Senator Joseph McCarthy's blacklist was a list of American people suspected of association with the Communist Party in the 1940s and 1950s. The people included on the blacklist were meant to be barred from employment.

From 1953 to 1955, McCarthy held 117 hearings and even more closed-door interrogations, witch hunts for subversives that thrived on guilt by association: someone had worked for a union, dates a communist, been in a book club that read a book by Marx. Author Johnson writes that reviewing the transcripts of those sessions made it clear that McCarthy, in addition to guilt by association and character assassination, was engaged in an “obsessive hunt for homosexuals,” hounded writers, artists, and composers, attacked the reputations of military leaders.

McCarthyism - Wikipedia

Prelude to McCarthyism: The Making of a Blacklist

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McCarthyism Today

One of the most potent worries about the coming Trump presidency is concern about free speech. Trump’s willingness to tolerate or even encourage violence against nonviolent critics of his agenda and personnel choices is alarming.

Behind the façade of a concern about fake news, the Post featured an article by Craig Timberg that cited—without challenge—an anonymous website, PropOrNot, listing numerous other sites purported to be purveyors of fake news. As Max Blumenthal reported for AlterNet, "the anonymous website argued that all of the named sites should be investigated by the federal government and potentially prosecuted under the Espionage Act as Russian spies. They were accused for wittingly or unwittingly spreading Russian propaganda."

Charges of Russian interference in our election—thus far without any specific evidence beyond agency assertions —should be investigated but ought not to become an occasion to harass domestic critics of US policy.

In any case, as numerous contributors to some of these libeled sites point out, the Post’s action is the digital equivalent of a McCarthyite blacklist. The Washington Post, which has “apologized” only by saying that it takes no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the claims made in Timberg’s piece, is owned by Amazon billionaire Jeff Bezos, who also does contractual work for the CIA.

Today, Joseph McCarthy’s ideological heirs in the Republican Party and right-wing media are using the language and tactics of McCarthy to stir fears that the nation is being destroyed by enemies from within. Republican Members of Congress and other GOP officials have not shown Welch’s concern for decency; instead they frequently act as an “amen chorus” to the far right’s demagogues or stay silent, hoping to reap political gain from the attacks on President Obama, administration officials and nominees, congressional democrats, and even military leaders.

[2016-12-22 Fake News and the New McCarthyism}( https://www.commondreams.org/views/2016/12/22/fake-news-and-new-mccarthyism)

2009-12-00 The Rise of the New McCarthyism

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Medicare For All

We need a single-payer, national health care system which guarantees care for all regardless of their ability to pay. Expanded and improved Medicare for all means everybody in, nobody out.

Bernie Sanders' Health Care as a Human Right - Medicare For All

National Nurses United

Monroe Doctrine - Central America Abuse

President Barack Obama could swiftly improve U.S. relations with Latin America by announcing the death of the Monroe Doctrine and then presiding over its funeral. Such a statement would cost him little domestically, and win him praise and appreciation throughout Latin America and much of the world.

Most Americans don't know the details of this 185-year-old policy and could care less about it. Latin Americans, in contrast, not only can describe the Monroe Doctrine, but they revile it. In effect, it has become nothing more than hollow rhetoric that offends the very people it purports to defend.

In 1823, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wrote, and President James Monroe proclaimed, a doctrine that asserted U.S. political character is different from Europe's. The United States, President Monroe declared, would consider the extension of Europe's monarchical political influence into the New World "as dangerous to our peace and safety." European powers should leave the Americas for the Americans, he warned, and he strongly implied that there existed a U.S. sphere of influence south of the border.

At the time, Europe shrugged. After all, the United States possessed neither a formidable army nor navy. But three serious problems fundamentally vitiated this apparently noble gesture to protect newly independent republics in South America from European re-colonization.

First, Washington proclaimed it unilaterally. Latin Americans didn't ask us for protection. U.S. diplomats didn't even consult their counterparts. That was ironic, since the Doctrine's "protection" involved placing the United States between Latin American countries and supposedly malevolent European states.

Second, its paternalism - the claim that "our southern brethren" lack the ability to defend themselves - raises hackles in Latin America. Even if the implication had some validity at one time, it no longer corresponds to the region's reality.

The third and most problematic issue Obama faces from the outmoded doctrine relates to its legacy. For more than a century, the United States has periodically intervened in the domestic affairs of Latin American countries. Typically the United States invoked the Monroe Doctrine - without threats from Europe - to justify self-serving intrusions that have inflicted heavy damage on Latin American dignity and sovereignty.

2009-02-02 Farewell, Monroe Doctrine

2008-03-02 Bush legacy: Farewell to the Monroe Doctrine?

2008-06-09 Losing Latin America

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MOVE Philadelphia Bombing

On Monday, May 13, 1985, a Pennsylvania State Police helicopter dropped two bombs on a Philadelphia house where members of the MOVE black liberation organization lived. The resulting fire grew out of control, resulting in the deaths of 11 people, including five children, and the destruction of 65 area homes. An independent investigation of the event heaped criticism on the city’s administration and at least for a time earned Philadelphia an unwanted reputation as “the city that bombed itself.”

Sources:

MOVE Philadelphia Bombing History and Fallout

MOVE

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Mumia Abu-Jamal

a political activist and journalist who was convicted of murder and sentenced to death in 1982 for the 1981 murder of Philadelphia police officer Daniel Faulkner. He became widely known while on death row for his writings and commentary on the criminal justice system in the United States. After numerous appeals, his death penalty sentence was overturned by a Federal court. In 2011, the prosecution agreed to a sentence of life imprisonment without parole. He entered the general prison population early the following year.

Beginning at the age of 14 in 1968, Abu-Jamal became involved with the Black Panther Party and was a member until October 1970. After he left the party, he completed his high school education, and later became a radio reporter. He eventually served as president of the Philadelphia Association of Black Journalists. He supported the MOVE Organization in Philadelphia and covered the 1978 confrontation in which one police officer was killed. The MOVE Nine were the members who were arrested and convicted of murder in that case.

Since 1982, the murder trial of Abu-Jamal has been seriously criticized for constitutional failings;[4] some have claimed that he is innocent, and many opposed his death sentence.

Mumia Abu-Jamal is in his 37th year of imprisonment, innocent and framed for a murder he did not commit and sentenced to death for being a former spokesman for the Black Panther Party, a MOVE supporter and a radical journalist, known as the “voice of the voiceless.”

In a 1989 interview on death row Mumia stated he is “fighting to create revolution in America. Revolution means total change.” Mumia continues to be steadfast in his political views. He has not been intimidated into silence despite the decades on death row or now serving life imprisonment without parole. Mumia continues opposition to the policies of the American imperialist state, at home and abroad: the political repression, racial oppression and class exploitation, imperialist war and colonial depredations.

To the American capitalist state, governed through both the Democratic and Republican parties, Mumia represents the specter of black revolt, of defiant opposition to their system of racist oppression. All elements of the criminal injustice system, with the Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) in the forefront, colluded to kill this innocent man and have never stopped in their attempts to silence him.

Mumia Support Group

International Mumia Suppot

2017-03-07 New Legal Action is a Path to Mumia Abu-Jamal’s Freedom, But a Re-ignited International Mobilization is Critical for Victory

2010-02-10 Will Supreme Court Ruling Help Mumia Abu-Jamal's Case?

New Jim Crow

October 1980 Election Surprize _Irtan Hostage Release Delay

The House task force was concluding a year-long investigation into claims that Ronald Reagan's 1980 presidential campaign had interfered with President Carter's negotiations to free 52 Americans held hostage in Iran. A mixed bag of Iranian officials, foreign intelligence agents and international arms dealers had alleged a Republican deal behind Carter's back. But the task force had decided there was "no credible evidence" to support allegations that the Reagan campaign had blocked Carter's possible "October Surprise" of an election-eve hostage return.

Carter's failure to free those hostages over 444 days had sealed his political doom and boosted Reagan from a neck-and-neck race to a resounding electoral victory. The hostages' release, as Reagan was completing his Inaugural Address on Jan. 20, 1981, opened a floodgate of patriotic fervor that reshaped the political landscape and made Reagan a hero.

The possibility that this pivotal moment in modern American history had resulted from a nearly treasonous dirty trick had drawn understandably angry denials from Reagan-Bush loyalists -- and even from Democrats who feared that the public would lose faith in politics if the charges proved true.

So, with a collective sigh of relief, the House task force debunked the charges by adopting an elaborate set of alibis for the key players, particularly the late CIA director William J. Casey, who had run Reagan's campaign. One of the Casey alibi dates was nailed down, according to the task force, because a Republican operative had written Casey's home phone number on a piece of paper that day, although the operative admitted that he had no recollection of reaching Casey at home.

To the shock of the task force, the six-page Russian report stated, as fact, that Casey, George Bush and other Republicans had met secretly with Iranian officials in Europe during the 1980 presidential campaign. The Russians depicted the hostage negotiations that year as a two-way competition between the Carter White House and the Reagan campaign to outbid one another for Iran's cooperation on the hostages. The Russians asserted that the Reagan team had disrupted Carter's hostage negotiations after all, the exact opposite of the task force conclusion.

As described by the Russians, the Carter administration offered the Iranians supplies of arms and unfreezing of assets for a pre-election release of the hostages. The Iranians "discussed a possible step-by-step normalization of Iranian-American relations [and] the provision of support for President Carter in the election campaign via the release of American hostages."

But the Republicans were making separate overtures to the Iranians, also in Europe, the Russians claimed. "William Casey, in 1980, met three times with representatives of the Iranian leadership," the Russians wrote.

At the Paris meeting in October 1980, "R[obert] Gates, at that time a staffer of the National Security Council in the administration of Jimmy Carter and former CIA director George Bush also took part," the Russians said. "In Madrid and Paris, the representatives of Ronald Reagan and the Iranian leadership discussed the question of possibly delaying the release of 52 hostages from the staff of the U.S. Embassy in Teheran."

Both the Reagan Republicans and Carter Democrats "started from the proposition that Imam [Ruhollah] Khomeini, was forced to acquire American weapons, spares and military supplies by any and all possible means," the Russians wrote. According to the report, the Republicans won the bidding war.

"After the victory of R. Reagan in the election, in early 1981, a secret agreement was reached in London in accord with which Iran released the American hostages, and the U.S. continued to supply arms, spares and military supplies for the Iranian army," the report continued. The deliveries were carried out by Israel, often through private arms dealers, the Russians said. Spares for F-14 fighters and other military equipment went to Iran from Israel in March-April 1981 and the arms pipeline kept flowing into the mid-1980s.

"Through the Israeli conduit, Iran in 1983 bought surface-to-surface missiles of the 'Lance' class plus artillery of a total value of $135 million," the report said. "In July 1983, a group of specialists from the firm, Lockheed, went to Iran on English passports to repair the navigation systems and other electronic components on American-produced planes." Then, in 1985, the weapons tap opened wider, into the Iran-contra shipments.

The Russian Report

The Original Eight-Part Series -- 'October Surprise X-Files'

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Panama Papers

The Panama Papers are 11.5 million leaked documents that detail financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,488 offshore entities. The documents, some dating back to the 1970s,were created by, and taken from, Panamanian law firm and corporate service provider Mossack Fonseca.

e journalists on the investigative team found business transactions by many important figures in world politics, sports and art. While many of the transactions were legal, since the data is incomplete, questions remain in many other cases; still others seem to clearly indicate ethical if not legal impropriety. Some disclosures – tax avoidance in very poor countries by very wealthy entities and individuals for example – lead to questions on moral grounds.

Other offshore shell company transactions described in the documents do seem to have broken exchange laws, violated trade sanctions or stemmed from political corruption, according to ICIJ reporters. ndividuals and entities may open offshore accounts for any number of reasons, some of which are legal but ethically questionable.

The documents contain personal financial information about wealthy individuals and public officials that had previously been kept private. While offshore business entities are legal (see Offshore Magic Circle), reporters found that some of the Mossack Fonseca shell corporations were used for illegal purposes, including fraud, tax evasion, and evading international sanctions.

The Panama Papers, the giant leak of documents, exposes offshore holdings of about 150 kings, crown princes, presidents, prime ministers, politicians, public officials, industrialists, bureaucrats, arms dealers, ganglords, businessmen, tea traders, jute giants, celebrities, film stars and players – all are players in the infamous world of property.

The leak, a collective investigation by hundreds of journalists, specifically the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ), of more than 11 million records of about half-a-century, reveals the extent of big property holders’ use of shell companies to conceal their amassed wealth, launder money considered illegal even in the eyes of the laws their political arrangements enact, and their evasion of taxes with the help of “more than 214,000 offshore entities connected to people in more than 200 countries and territories”.

The Panama tax haven leaks reveal a lot about the lawlessness of the rich, as well as the ideological bias of the western press. “Vladimir Putin’s name appears nowhere, but the corporate media used his image repeatedly to drum up interest in what is an otherwise newsworthy story.” Americans are conspicuous by their absence from the story. That’s because rich people in the U.S. can avoid taxes “legally in Wyoming, Delaware or Nevada.”

Panama Papers - Wikipedia

2016-04-16 Freedom Rider: The Panama Papers Problem

2016-04-03 Panama Papers: Denials Expose More Than the Original Exposé

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Panama - U.S. Invasion

The United States Invasion of Panama, codenamed Operation Just Cause, lasted over a month between mid-December 1989 and late January 1990. It occurred during the administration of President George H. W. Bush and ten years after the Torrijos–Carter Treaties were ratified to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the U.S. to Panama by 1 January 2000. During the invasion, de facto Panamanian leader, general, and dictator Manuel Noriega, who for a long time worked with the Central Intelligence Agency, was deposed citing racketeering and drug trafficking. Following the operation, the Panama Defense Forces was dissolved and President-elect Guillermo Endara was sworn into office.

The December 1989 US invasion of Panama really was a permission slip for Washington—led by both Republicans and Democrats—to waste whatever potential benefits the end of the Cold War might have brought. Remember the “peace dividend”? The Berlin Wall had just fallen on November 9, and George H.W. Bush, the “realist,” was quick to use Panama to leverage the collapse of Soviet rule in Eastern Europe, declaring the end of “sovereignty” and the right of the United States to invade other countries in the name of “democracy” and “human rights.”

December 20, 1989 is a day of infamy for the people of Panama. On that day, the most powerful military in the world descended on poor black communities in the middle of Panama City and carried out one of the most brutal war crimes of the late 20th century. Many in the U.S. have forgotten or never even knew that when George H. Bush ordered U.S. troops into Panama, Panamanians experienced their version of 9/11. By the time the carnage ended a few weeks later, U.S soldiers had murdered more than 3,000 Panamanians – changing the lives of Panamanians forever.

United States invasion of Panama - Wikiopedia

2017-05-30 How the 1989 War on Manuel Noriega’s Panama Super-Charged US Militarism

2014-12-25 December 20, 1989: The Day that Black Lives Did Not Matter in Panama

2014-12-22 The War to Start All Wars: The 25th Anniversary of the Forgotten Invasion of Panama

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Patriot Act

Pine Ridge Massacre

Police Brutality

Port Chicago Disaster and Mutiny

The Port Chicago disaster was a deadly munitions explosion that occurred on July 17, 1944, at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine in Port Chicago, California, United States. Munitions detonated while being loaded onto a cargo vessel bound for the Pacific Theater of Operations, killing 320 sailors and civilians and injuring 390 others. Most of the dead and injured were enlisted African American sailors. A month later, unsafe conditions inspired hundreds of servicemen to refuse to load munitions, an act known as the Port Chicago Mutiny. Fifty men‍—‌called the "Port Chicago 50"‍—‌were convicted of mutiny and sentenced to 15 years of prison and hard labor, as well as a dishonorable discharge. Forty-seven of the 50 were released in January 1946; the remaining three served additional months in prison. During and after the trial, questions were raised about the fairness and legality of the court-martial proceedings. Widespread publicity surrounding the case turned it into a cause célèbre among certain Americans; it and other race-related Navy protests of 1944–45 led the Navy to change its practices and initiate the desegregation of its forces beginning in February 1946.

In 1994, the Port Chicago Naval Magazine National Memorial was dedicated to the lives lost in the disaster.

On June 11, 2019, A concurrent resolution sponsored by Representative Mark DeSaulnier was agreed upon by the 116th congress. The resolution recognized the victims of the explosion and officially exonerated the 50 men court-martialed by the Navy.

Sources:

Port Chicago Disaster

The Port Chicago 50: Disaster, Mutiny, and the Fight for Civil Rights Reviews Reviews

The Port Chicago 50 Summary & Study Guide

Port Chicago 50 - A Play

Memorial for Port Chicago 50 unveiled in Vallejo

Port Chicago 50: kin of segregated black sailors call on Obama for exoneration

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Rachel Corrie

Our friend and fellow activist for peace, Rachel Corrie, 23 years old, was crushed to death on Sunday, March 16, when she was run over by an Israeli-driven, U.S.-made Caterpillar D9 bulldozer.

She, nonviolently, was trying to prevent the Israeli military from demolishing a Palestinian doctor’s home in the Rafah area of the Gaza Strip.

Rachel was in Rafah as a volunteer with the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) a Palestinian-led movement of both Palestinians and internationals working together for an end to the Israeli occupation of Palestine.

The ISM uses nonviolent, direct-action methods and principles to challenge and resist Israel’s brutal 36-year military occupation of the West Bank and Gaza, and to campaign for the implementation of U.N. resolutions and international law.

In response to the international community’s failure to offer Palestinians an international protection force, Rachel Corrie and other ISM activists actively have confronted Israel’s policy of home demolition, and international apathy toward this policy, by living with families whose homes are threatened and by refusing to leave them, or areas threatened with demolition.

The ISM believes that its presence slows the process of destruction and hopes that the international community ultimately will act to support the daily nonviolent struggle of normal Palestinian families to exist.

Rachel Corrie (1979-2003): An American Martyr for Palestine

The Death of Rachel Corrie – Mother Jones

Rachel and Anne: A Legacy of Two Martyrs

The Murder of Rachel Corrie - Israeli Army Bulldozer

Photostory: Israeli bulldozer driver murders American peace activist

International Solidarity Movement (ISM)

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Racism

Rise of Incivility

RFK Assassination

Salem Witch Trials

Scopes “Monkey” Trial

Slavery

Trail of Tears

In 1835, a few self-appointed representatives of the Cherokee nation negotiated the Treaty of New Echota, which traded all Cherokee land east of the Mississippi for $5 million, relocation assistance and compensation for lost property.

To the federal government, the treaty was a done deal, but many of the Cherokee felt betrayed; after all, the negotiators did not represent the tribal government or anyone else.

“The instrument in question is not the act of our nation,” wrote the nation’s principal chief, John Ross, in a letter to the U.S. Senate protesting the treaty. “We are not parties to its covenants; it has not received the sanction of our people.”

Nearly 16,000 Cherokees signed Ross’s petition, but Congress approved the treaty anyway.

By 1838, only about 2,000 Cherokees had left their Georgia homeland for Indian Territory. President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers to expedite the removal process.

Scott and his troops forced the Cherokee into stockades at bayonet point while whites looted their homes and belongings. Then, they marched the Indians more than 1,200 miles to Indian Territory. Whooping cough, typhus, dysentery, cholera and starvation were epidemic along the way, and historians estimate that more than 5,000 Cherokee died as a result of the journey.

Sources:

Trail of Tears History

Trail of Tears

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Treatment of Mentally ILL

Trump Impeachment

Vietnam War

Watergate Scandal

Whistleblower Treatment

WW2 Japanese Internment

Women Suffrage

[Index - Hall of Shame]